Is there a reason you are not installing the gtk-devel rpm?
I would normally expect the Makefile to be created as a result of running ./configure - did you run it before or after trying to run make?
Did you get any warnings or errors when you ran ./configure?
Can you run ./configure --help to see if there are any options you must provide? (There are some Linux packages that dont set defaults as they feel that defaults are dangerous - but they usually give warnings when you run ./configure without options.)
Unless you have some sort of constraints, I'd recommend you use YUM. If I say something like "yum install firefox", YUM will figure out firefox's dependencies and add them to the list of RPMs that it will download and install. The same applies to development packages, not just finished binaries.
In addition to the primary YUM repositories, there are several 3d-party ones (for example, I get mplayer and MythTV from Dag Weiers). And, if you're cooking up packages of your own, you can construct your own RPMs and build your own local YUM repository.
Since YUM is RPM-based, obviously the more parts of your system that either come in RPMs or that you can wrap as RPMs, the easier life gets. But if you're working on a professional-grade software release for Fedora, CentOS and/or RHEL (also SuSe, IIRC), having a set of SRPMs for a project isn't just handy, it makes it easier to do disaster recovery style rebuilds.