This is a question about HTML, and would be better placed in our HTML forum. Please remember to carefully choose your forum. An anchor tag with a "#" is a fragment identifier, a link within a document (our own Struts FAQ is full of them). Of course, if it doesn't have a label after the "#" and a matching label somewhere else in the document, it isn't going to link anywhere. I'd expect an anchor containing only "." to be a self-reference. Where did you find these examples?