Well, the answer is definately Yes and No! It's true that a final variable for primitive types can not change however, a variable to an Object simply means the Reference can not change. Any state held by that obect can be changed (Unless the Object is immutable). So, the answer is "Thread Safety depends on your Implementation" Note, even Instance Variables can cause Thread Safety problems if Objects are held in some sort of Singleton Implementation. You really need to pay attention to these issues when coding to ensure Thread Safety is maintained.