The application variable contains a reference to a ServletContext instance. Each web application has a distinct ServletContext reference. The ServletContext provides access to shared resources in a Web application. A single instance of a ServletContext is available to all servlets and JSP pages in a Web application.
First "application" is the only implicit object available here. And this only can access the ServletContext as its clear that: 1: The application implicit object is an instance of javax.servlet.ServletContext. It refers to the overall web application environment that the JSP belongs to. 2: A typical use of the "application" object is to get access to the application wide initialisation parameters(i,e. ServletContext).