This is to do with the precedence. If you try using the pre-increment operator instead: <pre> int a = 2 ; a = ++a ; System.out.println( a ) ; </pre> the output is 3, as you would expect. I remember that in various C++ reference books there was a certain amount of 'good practice' advice where the recommendation was to use the pre-increment operator wherever possible, to avoid confusion. I'll try to explain: In your code, if you had written: <pre> int a = 2; a++; System.out.println( a ); </pre> That would have worked. However, by using the line: <pre>a = a++ ;</pre> you are prone to precedence issues. I admit that this can be confusing. If you wanted to avoid using the unary operators, you could skip the ambiguity by writing: <pre>a = a + 1 ;</pre> I hope that helps. [This message has been edited by George Brown (edited September 28, 2000).]
int a = 0; a = a++; The post uniary operator ++ is above the = operator in precedence. So first evaluate the right side (a is 0). That's your value to be assigned to the left when we are done. Now apply the post ++ operator (a becomes 1). Now perform the = assignment from the evaluated statement (a = 0). So, 'a' was increamented but on assignment (done last) it is set back to the evaluated value of 0.
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