can someone explain the outcome of the following ~4 using bytes or some other formula is this formula valid in these circumstances? 1. change sign and subtract one ? thanks

~ is a bitwise inversion operator .It just invert bytes from 0 to 1. 4 can be written as 0000 0000 0000 00100 in bits presentation and ~4 will be------1111 1111 1111 11011 this is just inversion of bytes.since higher order bit is 1 it means this must be negative number,ans accordin to java negative no represent in two's complement.In order to see magnitude of two's complements no just invert bit and add 1 bit in lower order bit. So it wiil be 0000 0000 0000 00100 + 1 ---------------------- = 0000 0000 0000 00101 When you convert it into decimal no it will be 5 so ~4 will be -5. If I m wrong please anybody explain it. --Anubala

hI sarim , above things are exactly correct. But u can follow this thumb rule also as you won't be getting time to calculate all this. ~x = -(x)-1 here x is a signed number means ..if x =4 then -(4)-1 = -5 x =-4 then -(-4)-1 = 3 x = 0 then -(0)-1 = -1 hope this will help you..... Bye Amit

sarim raza
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Joined: Nov 02, 2000
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thanks everyone, and amit you seem to be a java stud!