This week's book giveaway is in the OO, Patterns, UML and Refactoring forum. We're giving away four copies of Refactoring for Software Design Smells: Managing Technical Debt and have Girish Suryanarayana, Ganesh Samarthyam & Tushar Sharma on-line! See this thread for details.
Hi Charlie, A 'protected' class can only be accessed by other classes within the same package or by any subclass. These conditions, for a top-level class, can all be met using the existing top-level class modifiers: 'abstract' and package (no modifier); which makes 'protected' redundant as a top-level modifier.
Hope that helps.
------------------ Jane Griscti Sun Certified Programmer for the Java� 2 Platform