The access specifiers are: private, protected, public and default ("friendly" or "package") The access modifiers are: abstract and final Declaration modifiers: transient, volitile and synchronized But I wouldn't get too hung up on the terminology - you don't need to know the difference for the exam.
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Hi Rajaraman, The access modifiers determine how objects may interact with each other ie a 'public' class is visible to all other classes and can be accessed by them but a private object can only interact with other objects of the same type. The other modifiers further qualify object/method/variable , providing a clue to how it can be used ie an 'abstract' method isn't implemented so it can't be used until you provide code statements defining it's behaviour. A 'volatile' variable's value can change in unpredictable ways so it has to be handled differently in multi-threaded apps, etc. Hope that helps. Please read the JavaRanch Name Policy and re-register using a name that complies with the rules. Thanks for your co-operation. ------------------ Jane Griscti Sun Certified Programmer for the Java� 2 Platform [This message has been edited by Jane Griscti (edited July 10, 2001).]