Hi all, Look at the code below: public class Temp { public static void main (String args[]) { int i = 1; i <<= 31; i >>= 31; i >>= 1; int j = 1; j >>= 31; j >>= 31; System.out.println("i = " +i ); System.out.println("j = " +j); } } Answer is : i = -1 j = 0 I agree with the value of j. But how am I getting the value of -1? Can some one explain this to me? Thanks in advance, Katrhik

int i = 1; 0000 0001 i <<= 31; 8000 0000 i >>= 31; FFFF FFFF This the trick. >>= is a signed shift. It respect the sign of its operand. Because 8000 0000 is a negative number, 1s will be added to the left to keep the most significant bit to 1, and thus its negativeness. >>= will add 0s if the MSB is 0 i >>= 1 FFFF FFFF= -1

Karthink, int i =1 -> 00000001 i<<=31, -> 10000000, (right shift 31 bits, the number is negative because of the 1 on sign bit) i>>=31, -> FFFFFFFF (thrity-one ones filled in for right shift on negative number) i>==1, -> still FFFFFFFF (another 1 fill in) so the result is -1, Hope this help

not so smart guy still curious to learn new stuff every now and then