This week's book giveaway is in the OO, Patterns, UML and Refactoring forum. We're giving away four copies of Refactoring for Software Design Smells: Managing Technical Debt and have Girish Suryanarayana, Ganesh Samarthyam & Tushar Sharma on-line! See this thread for details.
the term 'forward reference' applies to using a method or variable before it has been declared. In c\c++, the compiler has to know the prototype of the method before it is used but Java is not so demanding. The rules are: Method Variables - you must declare and initialize a method variable before it is used Class/Instance Variables/Methods - can be used in the source code file before they have been declared. The Java compiler will probably already know about these methods form a previous sweep through the file. Good luck with your exam (if you haven't already taken it)