Hi, I have a problem understanding the float exponent extended value and double extended exponded value. Can someone explain this to me? This following para is taken from JLS 4.2.3 UNDER THE Topic Types,Values and variables. I do not understand even a single part of it. The finite nonzero values of any floating-point value set can all be expressed in the form , where s is +1 or -1, m is a positive integer less than , and e is an integer between and , inclusive, and where N and K are parameters that depend on the value set. Some values can be represented in this form in more than one way; for example, supposing that a value v in a value set might be represented in this form using certain values for s, m, and e, then if it happened that m were even and e were less than , one could halve m and increase e by 1 to produce a second representation for the same value v. A representation in this form is called normalized if ; otherwise the representation is said to be denormalized. If a value in a value set cannot be represented in such a way that , then the value is said to be a denormalized value, because it has no normalized representation. -Sanjana

Ahh, you're looking at shorthand description of the IEEE Floating Point Standard (IEEE 754) that the Java Language specification uses to describe the behavior of the float and double types. The formulas in the text you pasted got lost, making the text even harder to interpret than it already was. First off, let me assure you that you don't have to understand these formulas to pass the certification exam. Things relevant for the exam are:

The upper and lower bound of the types.

Knowing which operations will result in NaN, and +/- INF.

Knowing that loss of precision can occur.

For a bit more readable presentation of the IEEE Floating Point Standard (IEEE 754) representation, you can read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_Floating_Point_Standard http://www.d6.com/users/checker/pdfs/gdmfp.pdf Just keep in mind that the bit patterns presented does not necessarily directly correspond to the in-memory patterns used by the Java VM. The only thing that is guaranteed is that the externally visible effect of the mathematical operations are identical to the ones specified by IEEE 754.

"Plurality should not be posited without necessity."<br /> William of Ockham