well for so many deefinition kinda stuff you can find any book or resource on net. but still to address very first question i must say that yes it does have a lot of impact. as more structure is the development and organization of code lesser will be the maintainance of code and thus cost.
Well I think software quality improves significantly depending on which language you work under. The easier and more intuitive a language is, the easier it is to crank code out. The faster you crank out code, the more time you have to test and debug it. The process of testing and debugging could even be made easier depending on the language or tools you work with. The language and the tools can help make you more productive and then in turn churn out better quality software. However, if you are working on an application that needs to be very very fast, maybe it wouldn't be the best idea to write it in Java or Ruby but in a language like assembler or C. It depends on the situation.
If a language makes you productive and happy, chances are better you'll produce higher quality code. Don't pick a language b/c it makes someone else happy (or worse, makes your IDE happy), but b/c it makes you happy.
(but you can explore a language b/c others tell you it makes them happy)
subject: Impact of the programming language on software quality