hi dear, '1=1' are conditions used in where clause. it is taken as always true condition. Similarly statement like '1=2'or 1=3 etc means condition is false. this statement are used generally where we want to copy structure of the wxisting table but not the content of the table. suppose we hava table emp(name,age). and it has data also. we can fire query as "create table emp1 as select name, age from emp where 1=2;"