This week's book giveaway is in the OO, Patterns, UML and Refactoring forum. We're giving away four copies of Refactoring for Software Design Smells: Managing Technical Debt and have Girish Suryanarayana, Ganesh Samarthyam & Tushar Sharma on-line! See this thread for details.
Strongly typed is a characteristic of a language, because of which it becomes imperative to specify the type of variables. And it makes the inter type conversions bound by strict laws. It is applicable to both, primitives, as well as reference variables. You cannot assign a float to an int(of course, the other way round is possible because of implicit widening), and similarly, you can't assign a Dog reference to a Cat object, because they are of different TYPES.
We have to very carefully distinguish between three mostly orthogonal concepts here:
Static Typing means that *references* have types, that are checked at compile time. That is, the compiler checks that you don't assign incompatible types - you can't assign a Dog reference to a Cat reference. The opposite is Dynamic Typing. Java and C++ are statically typed languages, Ruby and Smalltalk dynamically typed, for example.
Strong Typing means that *objects* have types, that are checked at runtime. That is, the runtime environment checks that you don't send messages to objects that don't support those messages. The opposite is weak typing. Java and Smalltalk are strongly typed, basic C++ is weakly typed (although modern implementations add support for strong typing, if I remember correctly).
Manifest Typing means that you need to declare the type of references. The opposite is latent typing, where the (static) type of a reference is infered by the compiler. Java is manifestly typed, Scheme is an example of a latently typed language.
The soul is dyed the color of its thoughts. Think only on those things that are in line with your principles and can bear the light of day. The content of your character is your choice. Day by day, what you do is who you become. Your integrity is your destiny - it is the light that guides your way. - Heraclitus