How do you handle exceptions/error from the model component? My model layer will usually return values for the view. What I have in mind is the return all values as object (including primitives wrapped into their wrapper classes) and if an error is encountered, then an exception object will be returned. In the action class, i will determine if it is an exception or not. If it's not, then I will put the object to the session for access by the view (via mapping.findForward("googPage")) and if it is an exception, then I will pass to the session as well for access by the view (via mapping.findForward("badPage")).