No. Eclipse is not an operating system. It's a framework, and it employs features from whatever OS it's running under plus whatever capabilities the plug-ins provide, but remote file access is something that's usually done at the OS level.
Regardless of the OS or framework, however, you can't just "access" files on another computer. If you could, you'd basically own that computer, and that's not secure. However, Windows does permit parts of its filesystems to be shared out over the network. For details on that, I'll have to refer you the the Microsoft docs on Windows File Sharing.
Windows shares are done using the Common Internet File System (CIFS), formerly known as SMB. Linux has a client package called "Samba" that can attach to these file shares and treat the files on the Windows computer in many of the same ways that Windows itself does. allowing for differences in how files are organized and in OS-specific file attributes.
An IDE is no substitute for an Intelligent Developer.