for those requiring help:

Math.pow(x,y);

x to the power of y:

eg: Math.pow(2,3) = 2 to the power of 3 = 8

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x^y

This is called XORing, refer to

XOR
eg: 12^23=27

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int x = a + b++;

is equivalent to

int x = a + b;

b = b + 1;

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post here for any more assistance...