Lots of questions - I'm not sure I can answer them all directly, since a lot depends on the particular implementation constraints that you have.
In general, the part of Spring Security that you'd look to in order to implement this type of functionality is the ACL module. This module is covered in Chapter 7 of the book, although really it's complex enough (and real-world examples are typically even more so) that you could probably write hundreds of pages on ACL implementations and extensions alone. For example, much of what you describe comes out of the box, but things like the calendar-based permissions do not, and to implement this, you'd need to be comfortable enough with the Spring Sec ACL implementation to extend it to provide this functionality.
I hope that answers your question!
Author, Spring Security 3 (the Book), Packt Publishing, 2010