CentOS is not Debian-based. It's the "free" version of the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distro. The difference between it and RHEL is that Red Hat logos &Co. have been replaced (per request of Red Hat's legal department) and that it doesn't require payment of a mandatory fee before use. It's a good distro to use if you want RHEL but can't justify the cost of paying for full-blown RHEL support.
So you wouldn't use apt-get to fetch and install packages, you'd use yum.
However, I believe that the actual Adobe Reader - the term "Acrobat" has been spun off in a totally unrelated direction now - is available as a downloadable RPM from adobe.com. As far as I know, it's not on any of the public repositories, since it's not an open-source program.
There are several open-source programs that can allow you to read PDF documents, some more polished than others. One that often comes pre-installed is "xpdf".
An IDE is no substitute for an Intelligent Developer.