Do you want to pass some data from a standalone Java program to a JSP, without using a JSP?!??
I ignore the above and assume that you want to pass some data from a standalone Java program to a JSP in a web application.
Do you want the web application to poll for the data or do you want to push the data from the standalone application to the web application, which is to update the display when new data arrives?
What are you not satisfied with, concerning your current solution using a database (i.e. what problems do you want to solve)?
One thing that comes to mind, without me being very clear on your requirements, is to use some kind of queue.
The standalone application puts data into the queue when it is available and the web application can later fetch the data from the queue when convenient.