There is an UML diagram on the page my link was referring to.
I wouldn't use the Decorator Pattern in for you problem since if Person would change then you would need to update all your references to that object since you want to wrap it.
I don't see how the Template Pattern can be of use here. The Strategy and State Pattern are similar. Just google for the differences between them.
And finally making a Passenger a Pilot doesn't sound like a good solution. I'm sometimes a Passenger but I'm not able to fly a plane (at least never tried it).