This week's book giveaway is in the OO, Patterns, UML and Refactoring forum. We're giving away four copies of Refactoring for Software Design Smells: Managing Technical Debt and have Girish Suryanarayana, Ganesh Samarthyam & Tushar Sharma on-line! See this thread for details.
Once the user presses a submit button, a call is made to the server and the server then determines what content will be displayed. Even if it is redisplaying the same JSP that was submitted, it will be the JSP in its original form without any modifications made by the previous AJAX call.
If you want to keep track of changes made by AJAX calls, I'd suggest having the AJAX actions put some information in the HTTPSession object to keep track of what was changed. Then, when the page is refreshed, access this information to rebuild the page to include the AJAX changes.