This week's giveaway is in the EJB and other Java EE Technologies forum. We're giving away four copies of EJB 3 in Action and have Debu Panda, Reza Rahman, Ryan Cuprak, and Michael Remijan on-line! See this thread for details.
The measurements you gave are for screen density, in 'dots per inch', which is the same as 'pixels per inch' on a screen. There are a wide variety of screen sizes and screen density combinations, so categorizing screens by number of pixels ends up being very difficult. The majority of the reason you care about the number of pixels is based on the density, the number of pixels per inch. You want your assets / images to be clean and take up relatively the same physical size on all devices to make sure they are usable and nice looking.
So to do that, you decide how large, in inches, you want the asset to be. Say you want a particular image to be 1/4" x 1/4" in size. Then you decide how big that image has to be, in pixels, on an mdpi density: at 160dpi, for 1/4", that would be 40 pixels x 40 pixels. Then you convert to the other sizes by multiplying by the correct conversion: lpdi = 3/4 * mdpi (30x30 pixels), hdpi: 1.5 * mdpi (60x60 pixels), and xhdpi = 2 * mdpi (80x80 pixels).