In terms of the language, no. Even Java 1.0 was Turing-complete, and Java 7 adds nothing to that.
In terms of the API, it's likely that Java 7 (and some other versions in between since Java 1.0) added APIs for doing things that otherwise you would had to resort to native code to accomplish. Or for which you would have had to write your own code, of course. For example, at some point an XML parser was added - but you don't strictly speaking need one, since you can write one yourself using the base language without using any API.
subject: Is there anything which can be accomplished using Java 7 but not in earlier versions?