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Examples for Builder Patterns??

Arthur Trauter

Joined: Feb 16, 2005
Posts: 11

i search for a general example regarding Builder Pattern?

Thankx in advance
Vladas Razas
Ranch Hand

Joined: Dec 02, 2003
Posts: 385
Excerpt from GoF "Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software" book, published by Addison-Wesley, C++ code:

We'll define a variant of the CreateMaze member function (page 84) that takes a builder of class MazeBuilder as an argument.

The MazeBuilder class defines the following interface for building mazes:

class MazeBuilder {
virtual void BuildMaze() { }
virtual void BuildRoom(int room) { }
virtual void BuildDoor(int roomFrom, int roomTo) { }

virtual Maze* GetMaze() { return 0; }

This interface can create three things: (1) the maze, (2) rooms with a particular room number, and (3) doors between numbered rooms. The GetMaze operation returns the maze to the client. Subclasses of MazeBuilder will override this operation to return the maze that they build.

All the maze-building operations of MazeBuilder do nothing by default. They're not declared pure virtual to let derived classes override only those methods in which they're interested.

Given the MazeBuilder interface, we can change the CreateMaze member function to take this builder as a parameter.

Maze* MazeGame::CreateMaze (MazeBuilder& builder) {

builder.BuildDoor(1, 2);

return builder.GetMaze();

Compare this version of CreateMaze with the original. Notice how the builder hides the internal representation of the Maze�that is, the classes that define rooms, doors, and walls�and how these parts are assembled to complete the final maze. Someone might guess that there are classes for representing rooms and doors, but there is no hint of one for walls. This makes it easier to change the way a maze is represented, since none of the clients of MazeBuilder has to be changed.

Like the other creational patterns, the Builder pattern encapsulates how objects get created, in this case through the interface defined by MazeBuilder. That means we can reuse MazeBuilder to build different kinds of mazes. The CreateComplexMaze operation gives an example:

Maze* MazeGame::CreateComplexMaze (MazeBuilder& builder) {
// ...

return builder.GetMaze();

Note that MazeBuilder does not create mazes itself; its main purpose is just to define an interface for creating mazes. It defines empty implementations primarily for convenience. Subclasses of MazeBuilder do the actual work.

The subclass StandardMazeBuilder is an implementation that builds simple mazes. It keeps track of the maze it's building in the variable _currentMaze.

class StandardMazeBuilder : public MazeBuilder {

virtual void BuildMaze();
virtual void BuildRoom(int);
virtual void BuildDoor(int, int);

virtual Maze* GetMaze();
Direction CommonWall(Room*, Room*);
Maze* _currentMaze;

CommonWall is a utility operation that determines the direction of the common wall between two rooms.

The StandardMazeBuilder constructor simply initializes _currentMaze.

StandardMazeBuilder::StandardMazeBuilder () {
_currentMaze = 0;

BuildMaze instantiates a Maze that other operations will assemble and eventually return to the client (with GetMaze).

void StandardMazeBuilder::BuildMaze () {
_currentMaze = new Maze;

Maze* StandardMazeBuilder::GetMaze () {
return _currentMaze;

The BuildRoom operation creates a room and builds the walls around it:

void StandardMazeBuilder::BuildRoom (int n) {
if (!_currentMaze->RoomNo(n)) {
Room* room = new Room(n);

room->SetSide(North, new Wall);
room->SetSide(South, new Wall);
room->SetSide(East, new Wall);
room->SetSide(West, new Wall);

To build a door between two rooms, StandardMazeBuilder looks up both rooms in the maze and finds their adjoining wall:

void StandardMazeBuilder::BuildDoor (int n1, int n2) {
Room* r1 = _currentMaze->RoomNo(n1);
Room* r2 = _currentMaze->RoomNo(n2);
Door* d = new Door(r1, r2);

r1->SetSide(CommonWall(r1,r2), d);
r2->SetSide(CommonWall(r2,r1), d);

Clients can now use CreateMaze in conjunction with StandardMazeBuilder to create a maze:

Maze* maze;
MazeGame game;
StandardMazeBuilder builder;

maze = builder.GetMaze();

We could have put all the StandardMazeBuilder operations in Maze and let each Maze build itself. But making Maze smaller makes it easier to understand and modify, and StandardMazeBuilder is easy to separate from Maze. Most importantly, separating the two lets you have a variety of MazeBuilders, each using different classes for rooms, walls, and doors.

A more exotic MazeBuilder is CountingMazeBuilder. This builder doesn't create a maze at all; it just counts the different kinds of components that would have been created.

class CountingMazeBuilder : public MazeBuilder {

virtual void BuildMaze();
virtual void BuildRoom(int);
virtual void BuildDoor(int, int);
virtual void AddWall(int, Direction);

void GetCounts(int&, int&) const;
int _doors;
int _rooms;

The constructor initializes the counters, and the overridden MazeBuilder operations increment them accordingly.

CountingMazeBuilder::CountingMazeBuilder () {
_rooms = _doors = 0;

void CountingMazeBuilder::BuildRoom (int) {

void CountingMazeBuilder::BuildDoor (int, int) {

void CountingMazeBuilder::GetCounts (
int& rooms, int& doors
) const {
rooms = _rooms;
doors = _doors;

Here's how a client might use a CountingMazeBuilder:

int rooms, doors;
MazeGame game;
CountingMazeBuilder builder;

builder.GetCounts(rooms, doors);

cout << "The maze has "
<< rooms << " rooms and "
<< doors << " doors" << endl;

Arthur Trauter

Joined: Feb 16, 2005
Posts: 11
thanks for the Answer!!!
Eugene Lucash
Ranch Hand

Joined: Feb 19, 2005
Posts: 77
Example from Bruce Eckel's "Thinking in patterns with Java"
I agree. Here's the link:
subject: Examples for Builder Patterns??
It's not a secret anymore!