I will tell u in brief ...Action classes are just like another java class and a thread will be run on the same instance for every request . Hence its not thread safe . So as long as u r using instance varibles , its ur duty to make them thread safe ... rest local variables are fine
and coming to action form , its thread safe if the scope of the form bean is request else its not thread safe
Hope i am clear
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a bit of art, as a gift, the permaculture playing cards