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hashCode and equals

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Dear all,

In the test CD of K&B book, there is one example:

One of the answers in the CD is

I wonder if this is correct? Because according the the contract between equals and hashCode, "but equals() and hashCode() are bound together by a joint contract that specifies if two objects are considered equal using the equals() method, then they must have identical hashcode values."

In this case, if we have 2 object A and B. Supporse that they have the same code, but A.bal = 2, A.rate = 3, B.bal = 3, B.rate = 2. In this case, equals() return true but these objects do not have the same hashCode, which violate the contract.

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if we have 2 object A and B. Supporse that they have the same code, but A.bal = 2, A.rate = 3, B.bal = 3, B.rate = 2. In this case, equals() return true but these objects do not have the same hashCode, which violate the contract.

Yes, Correct.
Is there anything else mentioned in the question? Have you checked the errata whether anything related to this presents?

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I think you are correct. Also given equals() method do not satisfy one of the contract point

For any non-null reference value x, x.equals(null) should return false.

Below mentioned is my analysis

Output is

HashCode Contract
1. Whenever it is invoked on the same object more than once during an execution of a Java application, the hashCode method must consistently return the same integer, provided no information used in equals comparisons on the object is modified. This integer need not remain consistent from one execution of an application to another execution of the same application.
A.hashCode() 16
A.hashCode() 16
B.hashCode() 24
B.hashCode() 24

2. •If two objects are equal according to the equals(Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce the same integer result.
A.hashCode() = 16
B.hashCode() = 24
A.equals(B) = true

3. •It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals(java.lang.Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables
A.equals(B) = false
A.hashCode() = 48
B.hashCode() = 24

Equals Contract
1. •It is reflexive: for any non-null reference value x, x.equals(x) should return true.
true
true

2. •It is symmetric: for any non-null reference values x and y, x.equals(y) should return true if and only if y.equals(x) returns true
A.equals(B) - true
B.equals(A) - true

3. •It is transitive: for any non-null reference values x, y, and z, if x.equals(y) returns true and y.equals(z) returns true, then x.equals(z) should return true.
A.equals(B) - true
B.equals(C) - true
C.equals(A) - true

4. •It is consistent: for any non-null reference values x and y, multiple invocations of x.equals(y) consistently return true or consistently return false, provided no information used in equals comparisons on the objects is modified
B.equals(A) - true
B.equals(A) - true
B.equals(A) - true

5. •For any non-null reference value x, x.equals(null) should return false.
at aaa.SortOf.equals(SortOf.java:12)
at aaa.SortOf.main(SortOf.java:95)

Swerrgy Smith
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Thank all of you for your replies

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3 It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals(java.lang.Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables.

Does that mean if two objects are unequal (a.equals(b) returns false) then a.hashCode() and b.hashCode() may return same integer results ?

i am confused with the usage of word "not".
Correct me if i am wrong.

Vijitha Kumara
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sakthi moorthy wrote:3 It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals(java.lang.Object) method, then calling the hashCode method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables.

Does that mean if two objects are unequal (a.equals(b) returns false) then a.hashCode() and b.hashCode() may return same integer results ?

Yes, it is not required to return the same hash code unless the objects are equal (by equals() method).

 Consider Paul's rocket mass heater.