# Characterizations of the $G_2(4)$ and $L_3(4)$ Near Octagons

### Abstract

A triple $(\mathcal{S},S,\mathcal{Q})$ consisting of a near polygon $\mathcal{S}$, a line spread $S$ of $\mathcal{S}$ and a set $\mathcal{Q}$ of quads of $\mathcal{S}$ is called a *polygonal triple* if certain nice properties are satisfied, among which there is the requirement that the point-line geometry $\mathcal{S}'$ formed by the lines of $S$ and the quads of $\mathcal{Q}$ is itself also a near polygon. This paper addresses the problem of classifying all near polygons $\mathcal{S}$ that admit a polygonal triple $(\mathcal{S},S,\mathcal{Q})$ for which a given generalized polygon $\mathcal{S}'$ is the associated near polygon. We obtain several nonexistence results and show that the $G_2(4)$ and $L_3(4)$ near octagons are the unique near octagons that admit polygonal triples whose quads are isomorphic to the generalized quadrangle $W(2)$ and whose associated near polygons are respectively isomorphic to the dual split Cayley hexagon $H^D(4)$ and the unique generalized hexagon of order $(4,1)$.