1. Thanks for NPE and the Field keyword. +1 for your Certs.
2. (A side note: On a piece of paper, the point 1 and point 2 are the same,
I thought it would be magically for the compiler to see point 1 as the point 2 "implicitly Forward Declaration"
That way, I don't have to worry about the order when in the future I can add any function composition.)