The one exception is with certain products like Tomcat. Historically, when you referenced a JSP in a JEE webapp, Tomcat would look in its cache for executable JSP code and if it didn't find it, it would fetch the JSP source, translate it to Java code (using a resource called JaSPer), then use "javac" to compile the Java code and create the executable JSP. Since javac comes with the JDK, but not the JRE, a JDK was required to run Tomcat.
Efforts have been made over the years to eliminate the need for javac, but I don't recall if they've finally succeeded.
"privilege" comes from the Latin words for "private" and "law" (legal) and dates to feudal times. To "claim privilege" meant that you were above the laws that applied to the common people.