1. The client MUST request a url that explicitly targets port 8080. If you just aim at "foo.com", HTTP will target port 80 and HTTPS will target port 443. DNS doesn't store port numbers, only IP addresses so it cannot target 8080 automatically.
2. As Les has indicated, the network path from client to server is critical. Every node between (and including) client and server has the potential to firewall-block the request. The client could be blocking outbound requests (although this is very rare), the router, switch and/or other appliances between client and server might have firewalls, and the server itself has a builtin firewall - since this is a modern version of Windows. And since it's a modern version of Windows, it will have inbound port 8080 blocked by default.
As a rule, switches usually won't firewall and routers only will if they're routing via the Internet and not the local LAN, so the first place to check is the machine hosting Tomcat.
And, of course, if there's no network path from client to server and back again, firewalls won't matter because nothing at all can get through. So the very first diagnostic step should be to PING the server from the client to make sure that such a path exists and is online.
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