Well, although this is a week old and marked as solved: What GPU do you use specifically?
Reason I ask: I run Arch and until its death used a R9 290X - which, although supported by the AMDGPU driver defaulted to the older RADEON driver unless specific kernel boot options to override this behavious.
Debian, which is on a WAY slower pace than Arch and hence although stable uses quite old stuff - most 6 months or older - maybe due to some specific quirks about the specific GPU used could had defaulted to an older driver than required for the higher OGL level.
On my 290x defaulting to the radeon driver resulted in vulkan not working - although the card supports (/supported? hence it's dead) vulkan. Only manually overriding to use amdgpu driver made vulkan working.
TLDR: forcing a higher reported compatbile version by applying an override doesn't sound right to me here as a valid "solution" but rather either the card is just too old or it's some driver issue due to old version of it.
A sudo lspci -v would reveal what card and what board partner and if it may list radeon as fallback driver.
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